South Africa

The two main subspecies of rice — indica prevalent in tropical regions and japonica prevalent in the subtropical and temperate regions of East Asia — are not believed to have been derived from independent domestication events. Another cultivated species, O. Recent genetic evidence show that all forms of Asian rice, both indica and japonica, come from a single domestication event that occurred 8, —13, years ago in the Pearl River valley region of China. In China, extensive archeological evidence points to the middle Yangtze and upper Huai rivers as the two earliest places of O. Rice and farming implements dating back at least 8, years have been found. Cultivation spread down these rivers over the following 2, years. Puddling the soil — turning it to mud to break it down and prevent too much water percolating away — and transplanting seedlings were likely refined in China. Both operations became integral parts of rice farming and remain widely practiced to this day.

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By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. He is leading something of a charm offensive in South Africa with a very particular goal: The selling points are abundant farmland, relative safety and a country that holds tight to traditional Christian values. The West may view Putin largely as a strategic and military adversary.

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South Africa is already facing an economic crisis, with slower-than-expected economic growth, drastic declines in critical economic sectors such as mining and a jobless rate of over 25 percent.

Share this article Share Agri SA, a South African agricultural industry association, added that the move could lead to food shortages. He added that Ramaphosa was trying to reduce the possibility of negative outcome from the land expropriation exercise by clearly staking out ANC’s plan on the matter.

White farmers control 73 percent of arable areas and it is widely understood to be that land which could be forcibly seized and transferred to the previously disadvantaged. The issue of whether to take land without compensating current owners is by far the most divisive and emotive issue facing modern South Africa with critics drawing parallels with Zimbabwe’s disastrous reforms. Until now the government has pursued a policy of ‘willing buyer, willing seller’ to enable land transfer.

But in February lawmakers voted to establish a commission charged with rewriting the constitution to allow for forcible land transfers without compensation. What are the controversial changes and why are they happening now? South Africa’s ruling African National Congress ANC is forging ahead with plans to change the constitution to allow the expropriation of land without compensation.

President Cyril Ramaphosa made the announcement late on Tuesday in a televised address to the nation, underscoring the political significance of the move. The following explains some of the issues surrounding the emotive issue of land in Africa’s most industrialised economy. SECTION 25 Some legal experts argued there was no need to amend the constitution because Section 25 states that if land is taken from a property owner, ‘compensation Citing recent public hearings, Ramaphosa said South Africans wanted the constitution to make clear when compensation was or was not justified.

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Oct 17,  · South Africa’s farmers are among the world’s biggest white corn, table-grape and citrus-fruit exporters, and are the second-largest producers of a wool variety used in clothing.

Mr Trump did not disclose what action he might take should the State Department report negatively. The instruction, made on Twitter rather than through a formal channel, came after Fox News, the cable television channel, incorrectly reported that white-owned farmland had already been seized, an error the president repeated. However, Cyril Ramaphosa, the South African president, is introducing legislation that would allow agricultural land to be taken from white farmers without compensation.

I have asked Secretary of State SecPompeo to closely study the South Africa land and farm seizures and expropriations and the large scale killing of farmers. The majority of our farmers, white and black, want to be part of this initiative. However, white South Africans still control 72 percent of all agricultural land despite making up only nine percent of the population.

The American State Department has said it would support the process.

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South Africa has one of the longest sequences of human development in the world. It begins with two million years old hominid fossils. Human Origins South African scientists have been actively involved in the study of human origins since when Raymond Dart identified the Taung child as an infant halfway between apes and humans.

Dart called the remains Australopithecus africanus, southern ape-man, and his work ultimately changed the focus of human evolution from Europe and Asia to Africa. In many ways this discovery marked the birth of palaeoanthropology as a discipline.

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The sixteen-year-long war in Mozambique Insight on Africa, 5, 1 Emerson, The Battle for Mozambique: Whilst clearly a national struggle, it also brought in regional players like Rhodesia and South Africa and even Tanzania and Zambia-all of whom had a vested interest in the outcome of this struggle for supremacy. Ordinary Mozambicans paid dearly for the war-an estimated 1 million dead; millions more made refugees or internally displaced, hundreds of thousands maimed and the economy in ruins.

Previous studies of the Mozambican war are problematic at best-having embraced the narrative emanating from one or the other side. In addition, other studies, too, found themselves rather naively deeming the sophisticated propaganda emanating from apartheid South Africa as reflecting the ‘truth’, and this propaganda soon found its way into mainstream academic literature. In seeking to discover the facts behind the myths Stephen Emerson’s latest book on this much misunderstood conflict is a must-read for those seeking to understand this turbulent period of Mozambican and Southern African history.

Emerson’s work is a veritable tour de force based not merely on the existing academic literature but also on face-to-face interviews with war veterans, extensive email correspondence with former belligerents, field notes, and government and rebel documents which he painstakingly gathered for the past 15 years. What emerges from the pages of this erudite book is the definitive account of the Mozambican civil war.

Academics will find the thorough research and the intellectual rigour engaged in praise-worthy, whilst policy-makers will find Emerson’s lessons learned from the carnage on the battlefield or the successful mediation which resulted in the signing of the General Peace Agreement on 4 October and which ended the conflict of interest. Whilst Emerson regards his book as a military history of the conflict waged in Mozambique-it is far more than that.

The reader is exposed to the strategic calculations of key actors as they have to respond to changing circumstances. Rhodesia, for instance, viewed the loss of Portuguese Mozambique as a military disaster of epic proportion as it now had its entire 1, kilometre-long eastern flank of the country exposed to infiltration by guerrilla forces of Robert Mugabe’s Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army ZANLA.

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Drinking water from the bi bulb plant Starting a fire by hand Preparing poison arrows San man The San kinship system reflects their interdependence as traditionally small mobile foraging bands. San kinship is comparable to Eskimo kinship , with the same set of terms as in European cultures, but also uses a name rule and an age rule. The age rule resolves any confusion arising from kinship terms, as the older of two people always decides what to call the younger. Relatively few names circulate approximately 35 names per sex , and each child is named after a grandparent or another relative.

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There’s also a problem with violence and murder in the country as a whole. The methodology used to accurately quantify how many South African farmers are attacked every year is problematic. Compare this figure with the 19, people murdered in the country in total in the same year. He said white farmers deserve “special attention” owing to the “horrific circumstances” they face in South Africa — because of government’s bid to expropriate land without compensation and the increasing number of farm attacks and murders.

Yes, there is a problem with farm attacks and murders in South Africa. There’s also a problem with violence and murder in the country as a whole.

Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalia, and Cannabis sativa L. In every society where people discovered Cannabis hemp, they often discovered the five uses for hemp which include; hempen fibers, oil from the seeds, the seeds for food, a medicine, and for its narcotic properties. Cannabis use has existed for over ten thousand years, and is one of the oldest crops used for cultivation. It was cultivated in China as early as BC. Most cultures viewed hemp as a gift, or treasure, from the Divine Sprit, to be used during ceremonials, at which time it was either burned as incense, ingested for deep meditative and heighten awareness, smoked for pleasure, or worn for clothing during these ceremonies.

The Anatomy of Melancholy, published in recommended hemp for depression. The New English Dispensatory, of suggested applying hemp roots to the skin for inflammation. In Africa hemp was used for dysentery, and fevers, today some tribes use hemp to treat snake bites, and women smoke it before childbirth. During the seventeenth century peasants believed in the magical power of hemp, and practiced their traditions. A western physician by the name of W.

He also reported that a tincture of hemp and alcohol taken orally was found an effective analgesic. Henry VIII required the cultivation of one quarter acre of hemp for every sixty acres of land under tillage, for maritime purposes in England. The British began cultivating hemp in its Canadian colonies in , cultivation began for Virginia in The Pilgrims introduced cultivation to New England as early as , they learned about the cultivation of hemp from the Native Americans people.

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Government officials now admit the campaign of farm invasions that began in was a mistake. You probably feel kind of special. Eyrie , posted on February 3, at 8: I suppose murder and rape will do that. Roger , posted on February 3, at 8:

He said white farmers deserve “special attention” owing to the “horrific circumstances” they face in South Africa – because of government’s bid to expropriate land without compensation and the increasing number of farm attacks and murders.

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Through countless eons the swirling whirlpools which occur as the Treur River plunges into the Blyde River, caused waterborne sand and rock to grind huge, cylindrical potholes into the bedrock of the river. The Potholes were named after a gold digger, Tom Bourke, who staked a claim nearby. Although his claim did not produce a single ounce of gold, he correctly predicted that large gold deposits would be found in the area. Just above the confluence of the Blyde and Treur Rivers is a curious formation of rounded holes in the rock caused by the perpetual swirling waters of the Treur River.

The trekkers named the Blyde meaning joy and the Treur meaning sorrow following an incident when their sorrow turned to joy. He moved east with guns in the direction known as the Long Tom Pass. Botha then shelled the town with the Long Tom guns from the heights. Buller and his force were in possession of two 5 inch guns, and these were used during the action in the town.

Farmers & South Africans unite against farm murders and attacks